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Essential Silver


References to the studies referred to in the handout on Essential Silver™ “Proven! The Fastest Germ Killer”.

Silver plays an essential role in our nutrition


1.   Jacobson S, Wester PO. Balance study of twenty trace elements during total parenteral nutrition in man. Br. J. Nutr. 1977; 37: 107-126.

2.  Rangwala I, Keating KI. Silver deprivation limits fecundity and survivability in the freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2008; 121(1): 44-50.

Only silver ions are effective in killing infectious organisms


3.  Goetz A, Tracy RL, Harris FS Jr. The oligodynamic effect of silver. In: Silver In Industry (L. Addicks, ed.) New York, NY: Reinhold Publishing Corporation; 1940.

4.  Berger TJ, Spadaro JA, Chapin SE, Becker RO. Electrically generated silver ions: quantitative effects on bacterial and mammalian cells. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1976; 9(2): 357-358.


5.  Simonetti N, Simonetti G, Bougnol F, Scalzo M. Electrochemical Ag+ for preservative use. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1992; 58(12): 3834-3836.


6.  Tien DC, Tseng KH, Liao CY, Tsung TT. Identification and quantification of ionic silver from colloidal silver prepared by electric spark discharge system and its antimicrobial potency study. J. Alloys Compounds 2009; 473: 298-302.


7.  Morrill K, May K, Leek D, Langland N, Jeane LD, Ventura J, et al. Spectrum of antimicrobial activity associated with ionic colloidal silver. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2013; 19(3): 224-231.


8.  Xiu ZM, Ma J, Alvarez PJJ. Differnetial effect of common ligands and molecular oxygen on antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles versus silver ions. Environ. Sci. Technol.  2011; 45: 9003-9008.


9.  Youravong N, Carlen A, Teanpaisan R, Dahlen G. Metal-ion susceptibility of oral bacterial species. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2011; 53: 324-328.


Silver preparations that contain mostly silver particles, or silver protein, do not exhibit any antimicrobial activity:

10.  van Hasselt P, Gashe BA, Ahmad J. Colloidal silver as an antimicrobial agent: fact or fiction? J. Wound Care 2004; 12(4): 154-155.

Silver supports healthy immune function:


11.  Edwards-Jones V. The benefits of silver in hygiene, personal care and healthcare. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2009; 49: 147-152.


12.  Klippstein R, Fernandez-Montesinos R, Castillo PM, Zaderenko AP, Pozo D. Silver nanoparticles interactions with the immune system: implications for health and disease. In: Silver Nanoparticles (D Pozo, ed.). Rijeka, Croatia: InTech; 2010.

Silver supports healthy immune function by stimulating an increase in production of red and white blood cells


13.  Bechold H. Colloids in Biology and Medicine. New York, NY: D. van Nostrand; 1919.


14.  Hill WR, Pillsbury D. Argyria: The Pharmacology of Silver. Baltimore, MD: The Williams & Wilkins Company; 1939.


15.  Berger TJ, Spadaro JA, Chapin SE, Becker RO. Electrically generated silver ions: quantitative effects on bacterial and mammalian cells. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1976; 9(2): 357-358.


16.  Becker RO, Spadaro JA. Treatment of orthopedic infections with electrically generated silver ions. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 1978; 60(7): 871-881.

Silver supports healthy immune function by increasing the activity of white blood cells


17.  Remes A, Williams DF. Neutrophil polarization and immunoelectrophoresis assays in the study of complement activation by biomaterials. Biomat. 1991; 12(6): 607-613.


18.  Xu Y, Tang, H, Liu J, Wang H, Liu Y. Evaluation of the adjuvant effect of silver nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Toxicol. Letters 2013; 219: 42-48.

19.  Haase H, Fahmi A, Mahltig B. Impact of silver nanoparticles and silver ions on innate immune cells. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 2014; 10: 1-11.



Silver ions stimulate tissue repair and wound healing

20.  Wright JB, Lam K, Buret AG, Olson ME, Burrell RE. Early healing events in a porcine model of contaminated wounds: effects of nanocrystalline silver on matrix metalloproteinases, cell apoptosis, and healing. Wound Repair Regen. 2002; 10:141-151.


21.  Lansdown ABG. Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use. Curr. Problems Dermatol. 2006; 33: 17-34.




Silver stimulates the process of tissue regeneration from stems cells

22.  Becker RO. Induced dedifferentiation: a possible alternative to embryonic stem cell transplants. NeuroRehab. 2002; 17: 23-31.


23.  Liu X, He W, Fang Z, Kienzle A, Feng Q. Influence of silver nanoparticles on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 2014; 10: 1-9.


24.  Turani M, Banfalvi G, Kukoricza K, Jakim J, Pocsi I, Kemeny-Beke A, et al. Regeneration of limbal stem cells in the presence of silver and gold nanoparticles. J. Environ. Anal. Toxicol. 2015; 5(5): 318.


25.  Zhang R, Lee P, Lui VC, Chen Y, Liu X, Lok CN, et al. Silver nanoparticles promote osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells and improve bone fracture healing in osteogenesis mechanism mouse model. Nanomed. 2015; 11(8):1949-1959.

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